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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 61-70

Vesicoureteral reflux and recurrent urinary tract infections


Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nephrology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Pankaj Hari
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nephrology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi - 110 029
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/AJPN.AJPN_26_19

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Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) refers to backflow of urine from the bladder into the upper urinary tract. Children with high-grade VUR are at risk of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). It is commonly associated with bladder–bowel dysfunction, necessitating treatment because it further increases the risk of recurrent UTI and results in delayed resolution of VUR. Almost one-third of patients with VUR diagnosed following UTI show renal scarring. It is debated whether scarring in VUR is entirely acquired following UTI or due to dysplasia. The efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis has been variable for the prevention of UTI in children with VUR. A meta-analysis suggests that it might be of some benefit in preventing UTI, but not renal scarring and at cost of bacterial resistance. Due to questionable efficacy and potential risk, use of antibiotic prophylaxis should be based on risk stratification rather than mere presence of reflux. In view of lack of significant improvement in long-term outcomes with current available interventions, there is ongoing debate on the aggressiveness of algorithms for diagnosing VUR following UTI. Long-term complications of VUR include proteinuria, hypertension, and end-stage renal disease. As opposed to previous assumption, the risk of end-stage renal failure and hypertension is fairly small with scarring following UTI.


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